The human's relation with the planet was formed at the dawn of the agrarian era. It is deeply rooted in the socio-technological order, namely that humans deplete the Earth's resources as much as possible hoping that the Mother Earth will replenish the losses. The exploitation of natural resources, the rate of economic growth and progress have become standard factors in the development of any industrial country. It was possible when there were less people on Earth than now. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the population began to grow exponentially subsequent to technological progress. Accompanying processes
intensified behind them: urbanization, migration, use of energy, water, production and consumption of goods and services, etc. At the same time, the ecological footprint of humanity is increasing along with emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, ocean acidification, large-scale deforestation and loss of biodiversity.
Modern global capitalism, by definition
, is built on private ownership of the means of production and is aimed to make a profit, continuous productivity growth and accumulation of capital. In this case, the measure of economic success is GDP as an indicator that reflects the market value of goods and services produced by a country within a year (for example, the latest report by Deloitte
). Global corporations opt for speed and low cost of production, which leads to negative consequences for the environment. Currently, exploitation of nature has no intention to sustain and restore the natural ecosystem. According to a number of eco-activists, commitment of the capitalist economy to unlimited growth leads to escalation
of ecological crisis on a global scale.
Environmental issues are exacerbated in other ways. Inclusion of increasing number of people
from the middle and lower-income social strata in industrial production and consumption provokes an increase in waste disposal and negative ecological footprint. In order to join the race for increasing profits, producers manifested interest in increasing the volume of output, which leads to overproduction and excess stocks of products, which then have to be disposed of. A separate environmental issue directly related to the current economic model is the use of non-renewable energy sources
: coal is used as the main fuel in many countries. It pollutes the atmosphere and water, causes smog in cities and is carried by the wind to neighboring territories.
Culture of consumption is subsequently formed : people not only
use the products for practical purposes, but also express specific lifestyle, status, views and values. The desire for consumption, reflecting the individuality of consumer, supports the system of global capitalism, oriented on production growth . At the same time, individualistic consumer culture could have become an indirect reason for disunity and atomization of society, which, in turn, leads to an aggravation of a person's sense of loneliness. The societal consequences of the existing consumer culture are described in the book by Herbert Marcuse "One-Dimensional Man"
. Local cultures are under the threat of erosion
, flattening and even destruction
due to marketing: for the sake of promoting on the global market, cultural meanings are turned into product.