Living conditions on our planet are changeable. Decades of dry or cold and wet periods were before and can happen again. There were also invasions of pests or plant diseases. Under such circumstances, breeders need to make quick replacement of varieties with more resistance. To create them, it is necessary to keep on seeds that are resistant to various adverse factors. So the collection of seeds of such samples is an airbag necessary for the survival of humanity.
The gene bank is a special place for the conservation of plant genetic resources of major agricultural crops and their wild relatives. Most of the samples are contained as seeds. The idea of collecting plants is not new. It appeared after several years of crop failure and hunger at the end of the nineteenth century in tsarist Russia. Then new varieties which are resistant to drought and other cataclysms were needed. The Bureau of Applied Botany was founded in 1894. It searched for material that was supposed to help breeders. It collected varieties of food crops and their wild counterparts. Seeds are the most transportable, compact and unpretentious condition of plants. And first gene banks for seeds storage were born.
In the future it is necessary to save the diversity of species of animals and plants, landscapes and ecosystems. The conservation of biodiversity is not only a direction of nature conservation, but an integral part of life. It is not enough to carry out traditional nature conservation work. For example, according to National Geographic, about 90% of historical fruit and vegetable varieties in the United States have disappeared. The trend is the same in other regions. Gene banks can preserve seeds for future generations. They will enable the study and creation of a collection of natural wild species of living organisms. Gene bank is a future global asset of unique knowledge about species of living organisms. Science will benefit from it for the development of conservation policy around the world.
The Royal Botanic Gardens
are implementing such a project. More than 300 British scientists conduct scientific research and create the largest library of genes for wild plants and fungus. In the future the library will become publicly available. The Royal Gardens Community wants humanity not to destroy the planet's biodiversity. We must preserve it and have a common global asset of knowledge about the species of living organisms, collected genes of natural wild species in different parts of the planet in genetic banks