Transition Towns or Transition Cities are an urban local self-management social movement initiated in England. The term "transition city" was coined by Louise Rooney and Catherine Dunn as part of a student research. The first city to develop the concept was Totnes
in England in 2006. British permaculture designer Rob Hopkins organized the Transition Network as a British charity program. The official Cities of Transition are recognized in England, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, USA, Chile. Transition initiatives can be implemented in villages (Kinsale), urban districts (Portobello, Edinburgh), metropolitan areas (Brixton).
The main goal of the project is to raise awareness of sustainable living and help building communities on the principles of environmental sustainability
. Practice links isolated experiments of ecovillages into models for transforming urban and intercity spaces. An active participant in the movement is the Lesnye Sady
farm. It is a farm in the Tula region, designed as an anthropoagrobiocenosis and involving urban consumers in the production and participation process. According to the landowner Georgy Afanasyev, the city transformation
has to go from a monolithic space into a "creative territory". This should generate the resources for personal needs, and intercity spaces should be like manageable, productive and sustainable biocenoses organized according to the model of Lesnye Sady